主管:安徽省卫生健康委员会
主办:安徽省寄生虫病防治研究所
出版:《热带病与寄生虫学》编辑部
创刊:1972年
主编:汪天平
常务副主编:操治国
编辑部主任:张光明
刊号:ISSN 1672-2302 CN 34-1263/R
20 December 2023, Volume 21 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
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GUIDELINE
An excerpt of Guideline for Laboratory and Field Trials of Molluscicides for Schistosomiasis Control
JIN Wei, ZHANG Guangming, HUANG Yinyin, CAO Zhiguo, WANG Tianping
2023, 21 (6):  305-310.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.001
Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1576KB) ( 90 )  

The World Health Organization (WHO) released the Guideline for Laboratory and Field Trials of Molluscicides for Schistosomiasis Control (hereinafter referred to as the "Guideline") in 2019. The Guideline aims to provide a standardized process for the efficacy test and evaluation of molluscicides, so as to provide a basis for national regulatory authorities to conduct product registration and other work. This article translates the background and three stages of laboratory studies, small-scale field trials, and large-scale field trials stipulated in the Guideline for reference.

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SPECIAL TOPICS ON PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF SCRUB TYPHUS
Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Hefei City from 2014 to 2022
LIU Wei, LIU Siyang, YOU Enqing, CHEN Lili, CHEN Wei, LI Juan, ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Jiaxiang
2023, 21 (6):  311-314.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.002
Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (922KB) ( 50 )  

Objective To understand the historical incidence and epidemic characteristics of scrub typhus in Hefei for scientific evidences in prevention and treatment of scrub typhus in Hefei area. Methods The data of scrub typhus cases reported in Hefei from 2014 to 2022 were collected through the Monitoring and Reporting Management System of China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the incidence and characteristics of spatial, regional and time distribution, and SatScan software was used to analyze the spatial clustering. Results A total of 301 cases of scrub typhus were reported in Hefei from 2014 to 2022, including 167 clinically diagnosed cases and 134 confirmed cases. All the cases were reported by 21 tertiary medical institutions in Hefei City. One hundred and ninty-three cases (64.12%) were reported by provincial medical institutions, 65 cases (21.59%) by municipal medical institutions, and 43 cases (14.29%) by county-level medical institutions. The average annual incidence was 0.41/100 000 and annual reported incidence ranged from 0.20/100 000 to 0.63/100 000, showing a decreasing trend (χ2trend=10.608, P<0.001). The median time interval from onset to diagnosis was 9 (1, 67) days. The cases mainly occurred in October-November each year (242 cases, 80.40%). One hundred and fifty-four cases were males, and 147 females. The gender ratio was 1.05∶1. The median age of the cases was 59 (48, 68) years old, and the number of cases aged 60 and above was the largest (149 cases, 49.50%). The incidence of different age groups showed an increasing trend (χ2trend=271.445, P<0.001). The occupations were mainly involved in farmers (198 cases, 65.78%), domestic workers and unemployed workers (61 cases, 20.27%). The top 3 counties (districts) with reported cases were Feixi County (110 cases, 36.54%), Feidong County (64 cases, 21.26%) and Shushan District (48 cases, 15.95%). The spatial scanning results showed that 10 towns in Feidong County and Chaohu City were type A clustering areas from 2014 to 2022. Conclusion Scrub typhus primarily occurs in autumn in Hefei area. Farmers and middle-aged and elderly people should be the key groups. It is recommended to strengthen the monitoring of scrub typhus in epidemic season, improve the diagnosis and treatment level of medical staff and the awareness of reporting. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen health knowledge education, intensify the elimination of host and vector, and control the occurrence and epidemic of scrub typhus.

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Epidemiological study and forecasting of scrub typhus in Xiamen City from 2013 to 2022
HUANG Jiafeng, ZHONG Chunyan, KE Xuemei, WANG Mingzhai, HUANG Shijie
2023, 21 (6):  315-320.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.003
Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2524KB) ( 34 )  

Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus in Xiamen City in recent years and predict the epidemic trend, so as to provide a foundation for scientific development of local preventive and control measures. Methods Data on reported cases of scrub typhus were collected in Xiamen City from 2013 to 2022, and descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the characteristics of time, spatial and regional distribution of the infection. In addition, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was used to estimate the incidence trend in 2023-2025. Results From 2013 to 2022, a total of 862 cases of scrub typhus were reported in Xiamen. The average annual incidence rate was 2.06/100 000, with fluctuating downward trend in incidence rates in different years in general (χ2trend=170.74, P<0.05). The temporal distribution had a more pronounced seasonality and periodicity, showing a bimodal distribution. The onset of the disease was mainly observed in May-October (737 cases, 85.50%), with 2 peaks occurring in June-July and September-October. Among the different regions, the higher average annual incidence rates were reported in Haicang District (3.56/100 000), Siming District (2.64/100 000) and Tong'an District (1.95/100 000). The male-to-female ratio of reported cases in the population distribution was 1.09∶1, and the reported incidence rate for both sexes was 2.06/100 000. The average age of reported cases was (46.97±17.35) years old, and the age of onset was primarily seen in the age group of 40-69 years old (547 cases, 63.46%). The highest number of reported cases was seen in the age group of 50-59 years old (228 cases, 26.45%), and the prevalence was the highest in population aged 60-69 years old (6.75/100 000). Of the different occupations, the highest number of reported cases was found in population of housework and the unemployed (208 cases, 24.13%), followed by farmers (197 cases, 22.85%). The median time interval between onset and diagnosis of the reported cases was 7(4, 12) d. The SARIMA(2,0,0)(0,1,1) [12] model could better predict the prevalence trend of scrub typhus in Xiamen City (RMSE=0.50, R2=0.75), and the predicted values for the number of cases in 2023, 2024 and 2025 were 42, 39 and 36 cases, respectively. The predicted data from January to September 2023 were validated, and the actual incidence data were all located in the prediction interval of the SARIMA model (RMSE=7.84, R2=0.76). Conclusion The incidence of scrub typhus in Xiamen is generally fluctuating and decreasing, and is expected to remain at a moderate epidemic level from 2023 to 2025.

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Clinical features of scrub typhus and early diagnosis of severe scrub typhus
LI Xiang, MA Zhongxu, LI Guozhong, JIANG Jianjie, FU Xuwen, ZHANG Le
2023, 21 (6):  321-325.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.004
Abstract ( 62 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1156KB) ( 38 )  

Objective To understand the clinical manifestation of scrub typhus, and explore the early clinical indications for severe scrub typhus. Methods Clinical data, chest CT imaging and laboratory findings were collected from patients diagnosed with scrub typhus from January 2017 to December 2021 in the Kunming Third People's Hospital. Then the cases were divided into non-severe scrub typhus (non-severe group) and severe scrub typhus (severe group). Logistic regression model was used to analyze the clinical manifestation of severe scrub typhus in early stage. Results In total, 181 patients with scrub typhus were included in this study, in whom 104 cases (57.5%) were included in the non-severe group, and 77 (42.5%) in the severe group. All patients developed skin eschar, commonly occurring at the trunk, which accounted for 47.5% (86/181) of all cases. Fever was generally seen in all patients. Other clinical manifestations consisted of headache, cough, abdominal pain, muscle aches, and dyspnea. Chest CT imaging revealed pleural effusion in 49.7% (90/181) of the patients. The incidence of pleural effusion was 67.5% (52/77) in the severe group and 36.5% (38/104) in the non-severe group (χ2=17.001, P<0.05). In laboratory tests, blood neutrophil count, level of aspartate aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group (Z=2.858, -3.870, -5.937, -6.546, -4.153, -4.802, -5.119, respectively, all P<0.05), and peripheral blood platelet count was significantly lower in the severe group than in the non-severe group (Z=-5.039, P<0.05). The regression analysis showed that elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin, interleukin-6 and the presence of pleural effusion were early clinical indicative of severe scrub typhus. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was 0.839, which had a sensitivity of 62.3% and a specificity of 96.2%. Conclusion Patients with fever and skin eschar shall be considered potential scrub typhus, and elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 as well as pleural effusion demonstrated by CT imaging can be early indicative of severe scrub typhus, and worthy of high attention. Patients with tendency to severe condition should be timely diagnosed and treated in order to reduce the mortality.

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Analysis on the clinical pictures of scrub typhus in 52 cases in southern Anhui Province
JI Yuanhao, WU Qiongle, WANG Wenjie, WANG Ni, YANG Jinsun
2023, 21 (6):  326-329.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.005
Abstract ( 86 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (923KB) ( 30 )  

Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and misdiagnosis of scrub typhus in patients from southern Anhui area for evidences to make timely and effective diagnosis and treatment for this acute infection. Methods Included in current study were the patients with Orientia tsutsugamushi treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College between January 2018 and October 2023. The data, including demographic information, clinical manifestations and related examination findings, were collected and descriptively analyzed. Results A total of 52 cases were included, in whom 24 were males (46.15%) and 28 females (53.85%). The average age was (56.71±12.36) years, with the majority being 30-69 years (44 cases, 84.62%). The infection most occurred in farmers (26 cases, 50.00%), and the highest prevalence was seen in the period from June to November (40 cases, 76.92%). The patients had definite history of insect bites (17 cases, 32.69%), and the clinical pictures primarily consisted of fever (52 cases, 100.00%), rash (51 cases, 98.08%), scabs (50 cases, 96.15%), and poor appetite (38 cases, 73.08%). The laboratory tests mainly showed elevated levels of C-reactive protein (45 cases, 86.54%), aspartate aminotransferase (33 cases, 63.46%), lactate dehydrogenase (45 cases, 86.54%), and D-dimer (47 cases, 90.38%). The electrocardiogram chiefly exhibited ST-T changes (17 cases), atrial premature contractions (11 cases), and ventricular premature contractions (8 cases). CT scans exposed pleural effusion in 8 cases and pulmonary infectious lesions in 11. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed liver enlargement in 6 cases and splenomegaly in 10 cases. The fever relief was (4.52±1.87) days in the 12 patients treated with levofloxacin or moxifloxacin therapy, and (2.71±1.08) days in another 40 treated with doxycycline. The length of hospital stay was (6.75±2.26) days and (4.16±2.15) days, and all patients were cured. The average time for diagnosis was (6.45±2.20) days. Misdiagnosis occurred in 38 cases (73.08%), which included 25 cases of bacterial infection, 8 cases of viral infection, 3 cases of drug-induced dermatitis and 2 cases of rheumatic and immune system diseases. Conclusion The clinical characteristics of tsutsugamushi disease in southern Anhui are still mainly specific rashes and scabs, but the misdiagnosis rate is relatively high. When making a clinical diagnosis, it is necessary to inquire in detail about the epidemiological history, conduct a thorough physical examination, and carefully analyze auxiliary examinations to reduce the occurrence of misdiagnosis.

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CONTROL STUDIES
Analysis on the characteristics of foodborne disease outbreaks in schools in Gansu Province from 2010 to 2022
LIN Wenxuan, LIANG Xiaocheng, CUI Yan, SANG Xianglai, LIU Huihui
2023, 21 (6):  330-334.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.006
Abstract ( 82 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1528KB) ( 58 )  

Objective To analyze the features of foodborne disease outbreaks in school campus in Gansu Province for recommendations in scientific prevention and control of such incident in schools. Methods The data on foodborne disease outbreaks in schools in Gansu Province from 2010 to 2022 were initially retrieved through the Food Safety Risk Assessment Business Application Platform of National Health Insurance Information Project, and descriptively analyzed regarding the distribution of time and region, school types, pathogenic factors, and sources of pathogenic food, etc. Results A total of 57 outbreaks of foodborne diseases, involved in 1 002 cases, in schools were reported in Gansu Province from 2010 to 2022. Four hundred and seventy-one cases were treated on hospitalization basis. No death occurred. The highest number of reported events was in 2020 (9 events, 15.79%), followed by 2016 (8 events, 14.04%). The peak period of the incidents reported was seen in June and September (12 respectively for June and September, 21.05%). The top three regions with the highest number of reported incidents were Longnan City (11 events, 19.30%), Baiyin City (10 events, 17.54%), and Qingyang City (8 events, 14.04%). The top three regions with the highest reported cases were Lanzhou City (343 cases, 34.23%), Qingyang City (149 cases, 14.87%) and Longnan City (145 cases, 14.47%). The highest number of reported events and cases were seen in middle school campuses, with 21 reported events (36.84%) and 263 reported cases (26.25%), respectively. Pathogenic factors were identified in 15 events, which were primarily caused by pathogenic microorganisms (60.00%, 9/15). Association of the outbreak was identified in 21 incidents, in which food circulation was responsible for the highest proportion of incidents (47.62%, 10/21). The main source of pathogenic food was from school canteens (66.07%, 37/56). The food categories were mainly foods with mixed ingredients or various foods (33.33%, 19/57). Biological, food samples and environmental samples were collected in 10 incidents, and the identification rate of pathogenic factors was 60.00% (6/10). The 3 samples were not collected in 32 events, in which the pathogenic factor identification rate was 15.63% (5/32). Conclusion In recent years, the number of outbreaks of foodborne diseases in schools in Gansu Province has remained relatively stable. The peak periods of the incidents are in June and September. School canteens are the major source of pathogenic food. In the future, we should further strengthen collaboration among multiple sections in order to jointly manage and reduce the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks in schools.

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Spatial epidemiological analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Heze City from 2017 to 2021 based on township
SUN Fusheng, FENG Li, SUN Yinling, HUANGFU Beibei, CHEN Xiuying, LIU Zengfa
2023, 21 (6):  335-337.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.007
Abstract ( 59 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (929KB) ( 45 )  

Objective To analyze the spatial epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Heze City from 2017 to 2021 at the township level for reference to develop the prevention and control measures for pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The registration data of tuberculosis patients in Heze City from 2017 to 2021 were collected from the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, and then the data were imported into ArcGIS software to establish a spatial database. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted to explore the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and hot spots of tuberculosis incidence. Results In total, 13 007 tuberculosis patients were registered in Heze City from 2017 to 2021, with an annual average registered incidence rate of 29.76/100 000. The number of registered cases in the past years was 3 150, 3 008, 2 695, 2 186 and 1 968, and the incidence rate was 36.53/100 000, 34.43/100 000, 30.75/100 000, 24.88/100 000 and 22.37/100 000, respectively, which showed a downward trend year by year. The top three towns with the highest annual average incidence rate were Huanggang Town (58.04/100 000) and Litianlou Town (54.66/100 000) under administration of Shanxian County and Tianzhong community of Dingtao District (54.05/100 000). In general, the incidence of tuberculosis in Heze City was spatially clustered (Moran's I= 0.161, P<0.05), and there were 7 towns with high-high clustering areas, including Lijinshitang Town in Juancheng County, Sanchunji Town in Dongming County, Guocun Town, Caozhuang Town, Longwangmiao Town, Zhangji Town and Shilou Town in Shanxian County. The incidence hotspots encompassed 10 towns, mainly distributed in Shanxian County in the southeast and Dongming County in the west of Heze City. Conclusion The incidence of tuberculosis in Heze City presents spatially clustered at the township level, and the incidence hotspots are mainly located in the southeast and west of Heze City.

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Predicting the infection status and epidemic trend of SARS-CoV-2 using transmission dynamics model based on Longgang District of Shenzhen City
YU Guolong, CHEN Siting, LIU Feng, LIN Haiduan, YE Bili, XIE Xianqing, JIN Yujuan
2023, 21 (6):  338-343.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.008
Abstract ( 72 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2701KB) ( 62 )  

Objective To predict and analyze the epidemic situation of COVID-19 for reference to improve the prevention and control measures for this pandemic. Methods Daily data of COVID-19 reported in Longgang District of Shenzhen City in December 2022 were collected. A multi-group transmission dynamics model with comprehensive consideration of the vaccination and age composition was used to establish a simulation model to estimate the infection rate, peak time of infection and following trend of the pandemic in Longgang District. Results The calculation results and curve fitting results of multiple transmission dynamic models showed that the model fitted the actual data well (R2=0.916, P<0.001). The prediction results revealed that the effective regeneration number (Reff) was 7.13 for this pandemic, and the cumulative infection rate was 95.46% for the population. The daily peak infection was 245 700 cases, and 74.95% of the population exhibited symptoms after infection. The daily peak incidence was 158 200 cases. The infection rate of the population in all 11 communities in Longgang District exceeded 90%, and the highest Reff (10.20) was seen in Nanwan community, followed by Pinghu community (9.60). Conclusion The multiple group transmission dynamics model can better fit and predict the infection status and peak time of COVID-19 in Longgang District, which can provide a reference for the decision-making in prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemic.

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INVESTIGATION STUDIES
Investigation on the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among kindergarten children in Nanjing area
YIN Weigang, HE Yisha, YANG Peicai
2023, 21 (6):  344-348.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.009
Abstract ( 98 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (986KB) ( 74 )  

Objective To understand the current status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children in Nanjing area for evidences to formulate and modify corresponding prevention and control measures. Methods By clustered random sampling method, we randomly selected one kindergarten from each of the 12 districts of Nanjing City, and all children, together with the homeroom teachers and the parents in the 12 kindergartens underwent survey between September and October 2022. Cellophane tape and anal swabs were used to detect Enterobius vermicularis infection, and questionnaire survey was conducted on the knowledge and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection in the teachers and the parents. Results In total, 2 348 children were surveyed. The infection rate of pinworms was 1.32% (31/2 348), 1.38% (17/1 235) for boys and 1.26% (14/1 113) for girls, respectively. The difference was insignificant between boys and girls (χ2=0.063, P>0.05), yet the infection rate showed a trend of increasing with age among children of different ages (χ2rend=8.472, P<0.05). Children in public kindergartens had a lower infection rate (0.95%, 15/1 575) than those in private kindergartens (2.07%, 16/773) (χ2=4.970, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the infection rates between kindergartens located in urban areas (1.48%, 20/1 352) and rural areas (1.10%, 11/996) (χ2=0.619, P>0.05). The qualified rate of knowledge about enterobiasis among teachers and parents was 92.65% (63/68) and 84.29% (1 889/2 241), and the qualified rate of symptom awareness was 92.65% (63/68) and 87.55% (1 962/2 241), respectively. Both had no significant difference (χ2=3.524, 1.589, both P>0.05). The qualified rates of knowledge and symptom awareness was 97.87% (46/47) and 100.00% (47/47) for public kindergarten teachers, 80.95% (17/21) and 76.19% (16/21) for private kindergarten teachers, respectively. The qualified rates of knowledge and symptom awareness among parents of public kindergarten students was 86.10% (1 301/1 511) and 89.28% (1 349/1 511), while that among private kindergarten parents was 80.55% (588/730) and 83.97% (613/730), respectively. The qualified rates of above-mentioned items in public kindergarten were higher than those in private kindergarten (χ2=3.869, 8.836, 11.467, 12.713, all P<0.05). Conclusion The infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis appears relatively higher, and the qualified rates of knowledge and symptom awareness of Enterobius vermicularis infection are lower in the teachers and parents in private kindergartens in Nanjing area. The findings suggest that targeted surveillance and health education should be carried out to effectively reduce the pinworm infection rate.

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Investigation on prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in wild mice in Ma'anshan City
FAN Zehan, WANG Weichun, ZHAN Ti, DUAN Yongmei, ZHU Yingfu, XIANG Kexia, JIANG Xiaoyu, LUO Yin, HE Jiachang, CAO Zhiguo
2023, 21 (6):  349-352.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.010
Abstract ( 123 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (948KB) ( 102 )  

Objective To investigate the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in wild mice in Ma'anshan City, so as to provide a scientific basis for precise control of schistosomiasis. Methods From September 2021 to November 2022, we conducted a field survey based on the historical epidemic data of schistosomiasis in Ma'anshan City in partial key environments in the townships confirmed with presence of infected snails by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method in the past three years for the distribution of wild mice and the status of schistosomiasis infection. Mousetraps were used to overnight capture the mice. Parallel examinations were conducted on captured wild mice using liver compression microscopy, liver homogenate microscopy, mesenteric vein compression microscopy, Kato-Katz method, and miracidium hatching method. Finally, the relevant indicators, including the density of wild mice and Schistosoma japonicum infection rate, were analyzed. Results Fifteen key environments were selected from 4 townships (communities) in this survey, and a total of 343 wild mice were captured. The average density was 6.40% (343/5 362) for the wild mice. The density of wild rodents in each township (community) was 12.43% (69/555) in Jinjiazhuang Community of Huashan District, 9.62% (50/520) in Jiashan Town of Yushan District, 6.76% (148/2 188) in Huyang Town, and 3.62% (76/2 099) in Huangchi Town of Dangtu County. The overall mouse density was different among the townships (χ2=70.271, P<0.05). Three hundred and twenty-six valid wild mouse samples were obtained, including 173 Rattus losea, 122 Apodemus agrarius, 23 Rattus norvegicus, 7 Mus musculus and 1 Niviventer fulvescens. Thirty-six wild mice were detected to be infected with Schistosoma japonicum. The infection was seen in Huyang Town and Huangchi Town of Dangtu County, with an infection rate of 18.57% (26/140) and 13.16% (10/76), respectively, for the mice captured in the two areas aforementioned, yet the difference was insignificant (χ2=1.039, P>0.05). The wild mouse species in Huyang Town with positive results were Rattus losea, Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus, with infection rate of 22.00% (22/100), 6.45% (2/31), 33.33% (1/3) and 20.00% (1/5), respectively, and there was no statistical differences (Fisher's exact probability method, P>0.05). The wild mouse species in Huangchi Town detected to be positive included Rattus losea and Apodemus agrarius. The infection rate was 20.59% (7/34) and 13.64% (3/22), respectively, without statistical significance (χ2=0.094, P>0.05). Conclusion Wild mice may be one of the important sources of infection for schistosomiasis in Ma'anshan area. In the future, we should continue to strengthen the monitoring of wild rodents in epidemic areas, carry out snail control in key environments, and timely drop the wild mouse density by application of integrated measures, such as rodent control and environmental improvement, to further reduce the risk of schistosomiasis transmission.

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CLINICAL STUDY
Analysis on the characteristics of nosocomial infection in ICU in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, 2017-2022
JIANG Xue, ZHAO Huijuan, YANG Lixia, DU Shiying, YUAN Weijing
2023, 21 (6):  353-356.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.011
Abstract ( 71 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (929KB) ( 43 )  

Objective To understand the characteristics and changing trend of nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary hospital in Beijing for evidence to formulate prevention and control measures for nosocomial infection. Methods The clinical data of all nosocomial infection cases reported by a tertiary hospital in Beijing from 2017 to 2022 was derived through the Beijing Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and Management System, and analyzed pertinent to the changing trends by year of nosocomial infection proportion, incidence rate, age group, infection site and pathogens responsible for the infection. Results A total of 3 001 ICU patients were monitored, and 160 cases (195 times) of nosocomial infection occurred in 2017-2022, with overall nosocomial infection rate of 5.33%. The infection rates from 2017 to 2022 were 4.61% (20/434), 8.02% (38/474), 7.16% (34/475), 4.90% (21/429), 3.29% (24/730) and 5.01% (23/459), respectively, which indicated a decreasing trend (Z=2.061, P<0.05). The average daily nosocomial infection incidence was 0.55% (160/28 987) from 2017 to 2022. The median age for the ICU infections was 70.0 (57.5, 80.0) years, and the infection most occurred in patients aged 60 years or older (72.50%, 116/160). The most common infection site was in respiratory system (46.67%, 91/195), followed by blood system (33.85%, 66/195). The top three pathogens responsible for the nosocomial infection were involved in Klebsiella Pneumoniae (16.88%, 27/160), Acinetobacter baumannii (14.38%, 23/160) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.75%, 22/160). Conclusion The incidence of nosocomial infections of ICU of this hospital was lower, and the incidence tended to decrease from 2017 to 2022. The infections mainly occurred in the elderly population, and respiratory infections are the main pathway. Gram negative bacteria are the major pathogens causing the infections. The findings suggest that attention should be paid to the key populations for nosocomial infections in ICU through implementation of the prevention and control measures and strengthening targeted surveillance in order to reduce the risk of nosocomial infection.

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REVIEW
Research progress in the relationship between schistosomiasis and digestive system tumors
WANG Xiaoyi, YANG Jianghua
2023, 21 (6):  357-361.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-2302.2023.06.012
Abstract ( 75 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (942KB) ( 67 )  

Schistosomiasis represents a globally prevalent infectious disease, and is responsible for cirrhosis and chronic enteritis. Apart from that, this condition may also be related to the occurrence and development of digestive system tumors (liver cancer, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer, etc.). This article mainly reviews the correlation between schistosomiasis and the aforementioned digestive system tumors, with an attempt to provide reference for further research of this condition.

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